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Herodotus, Polybius, Julius Caesar, and Livy become rewarding however, passageway information regarding North Africa
Home Xəbərlər Herodotus, Polybius, Julius Caesar, and Livy become rewarding however, passageway information regarding North Africa
20 Şub 2023  /  by Aybəniz Məmmədli   /   0 Comments

Herodotus, Polybius, Julius Caesar, and Livy become rewarding however, passageway information regarding North Africa

Nord stays a great monumental survey. Sallust is actually a difference given his The fresh Jugurthine Conflict. However, his efforts are brief and you may restricted. The fresh new encyclopedist Pliny this new Elder therefore the geographer Strabo also provide fragmented advice in their “global” point of views. Augustine’s Confessions illustrates the new diverse intellectual and you can spiritual currents dispersing between North Africa and you may European countries. Procopius, when you’re providing because secretary toward armed forces frontrunner Belisarius, recounts a track record of the fresh Byzantine campaign against the Vandals.

of Egypt therefore the Muslim datingranking.net/tr/feeld-inceleme/ conquest of one’s Maghrib and you will al-Andalus (Muslim Iberia). On the eleventh 100 years, Abu Ubayd al-Bakri furnishes an interesting geographic and you may sociological itinerary. Ibn Idhari al-Marrakushi (florida. later thirteenth–very early fourteenth centuries) chronicles the real history out-of Northern Africa from the Arab conquest to help you brand new Almohads (Muwahhidun). Leo Africanus’s (Hasan bn Muhammad al-Wazzani) sixteenth-100 years reflections bear in mind that from al-Bakri. Algeria’s Mahfoud Kaddache, Ahmad Tawfiq al-Madani, and you will Mubarak bn Muhammad al-Mili exemplify unbelievable “national” historiography. Together, these benefits although some listed in new bibliography are common rewarding. However, you can find three intellectuals exactly who especially exemplify North African scholarly depth and you will breadth.

During their colorful and capricious field because the a good statesman and you may scholar the guy stayed on the Maghrib as well as in al-Andalus. The guy in the course of time attained the positioning regarding mufti otherwise dominant judge away from the latest Maliki school from jurisprudence inside Egypt. In the Muqad-

Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) Ibn Khaldun was born in Tunis, the capital of the current Tunisia

dima (Introduction),18 the guy distinguishes between “surface” and you may “internal meaning” histories: “Facial skin record is no more details about governmental events, dynasties, and events of your remote early in the day. . . . They . . . will bring so you can united states an insight into people products. (They shows) just how altering standards impacted (individual things), just how specific dynasties stumbled on undertake an ever before greater space from inside the the nation, and just how it compensated the world until they heard the call as well as their day is actually upwards.” This is actually the history of names and dates. He continues on: “The internal meaning of record, likewise, relates to conjecture and you will a make an effort to get at the way it is, refined reason of one’s factors and you may sources regarding existing something, and you will strong experience with the new exactly how and just why from situations” (Ibn Khaldun 1967, 1:6). That it latter background especially interested so it erudite college student.

“It must be known that record was an abuse who may have most (different) means. . . . Brand new (composing of the past) need multiple supplies and you will significantly varied studies” (Ibn Khaldun 1967, 1:15). The guy underscored their methodological means that have a caution: In the event the [the fresh new historian] trusts historical suggestions in ordinary sent mode possesses zero obvious expertise in the guidelines through individualized, the essential activities of politics, the type from civilization, or even the requirements ruling people personal company, and in case, additionally, the guy will not consider secluded or ancient issue courtesy comparison which have close or latest thing, he often usually do not stop stumbling and you will dropping and you may deviating on highroad out-of realities. (Ibn Khaldun 1967, 1:15–16)

Ibn Khaldun acknowledged the importance of business economics, sociology, psychology, faith, geography, climate, and what we label today political science toward the organization and you can reason of history. Predicated on Philip Hitti: “Zero Arab journalist, indeed no Western european, got ever before removed a look at records at a time therefore comprehensive and you can philosophic” (Hitti 1970, 568).

Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti tends to make a very important membership off Napoleon’s intrusion out of Egypt and you will its governmental and you may cultural confrontations and you will outcomes

ercise away from electricity and you will dictate so you’re able to a historical broker, called asabiyya, that will be interpreted once the good “category effect.”19 When a dynasty’s personal and you may political cohesion weak, it inevitably rejected. Ibn Khaldun’s historiography and you may strategy remain extremely valuable with the insights North Africa’s past (and provide). His interdisciplinary means evinces a superb rational sophistication.

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